cellsalive COMPUTER LAB click here
soil lab

click here for frog video

Frog External Anatomy

1. Observe the dorsal and ventral sides of the frog.

How do they differ in color?
Dorsal side color ___________
Ventral side color ____________

2. Examine the hind legs.

How many toes are present? ________ Are the toes webbed? ______

3. Examine the forelegs.
How many toes are present? _________Are the toes webbed? _______

4. Use a ruler to measure your frog, measure from the tip of the head to the end of the frog's backbone (do not include the legs in your measurement). Compare the length of your frog to other frogs

Your Frog (cm) Frog 2 Frog 3 Frog 4 Frog 5 Average Length

5. Locate the frog's eyes, the nictitating membrane is a clear membrane that attached to the bottom of the eye. Use tweezers to carefully remove the nictitating membrane. You may also remove the eyeball.
What color is the nictitating membrane? _______
What color is the eyeball? _________

6. Just behind the eyes on the frog's head is a circular structure called the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is used for hearing. Measure the diameter (distance across the circle) of the tympanic membrane.
Diameter of tympanic membrane _______cm

7. Feel the frog's skin. Is it scaley or is it slimey? ____________

Anatomy of the Frog's Mouth

Procedure: Pry the frog's mouth open and use scissors to cut the angles of the frog's jaws open. Cut deeply enough so that the frog's mouth opens wide enough to view the structures inside.

1. Locate the tongue. Play with the tongue. Does it attach to the front or the back of the mouth? __________ (You may remove the tongue)

2. In the center of the mouth, toward the back is a single round opening. This is the esophagus. This tube leads to the stomach. Use a probe to poke into the esophagus.

3. Close to the angles of the jaw are two openings, one on each side. These are the Eustachian tubes. They are used to equalize pressure in the inner ear while the frog is swimming.

Insert a probe into the Eustachian tube. To what structure does the Eustachian tube attach? _____________________

4. Just behind the tongue, and before you reach the esophagus is a slit like opening. (You may need to use your probe to get it to open up). This slit is the glottis, and it is the opening to the lungs. The frog breathes and vocalizes with the glottis.

5. The frog has two sets of teeth. The vomarine teeth are found on the roof of the mouth. The maxillary teeth are found around the edge of the mouth. Both are used for holding prey, frogs swallow their meals whole and do NOT chew.

6. On the roof of the mouth, you will find two tiny openings, if you put your probe into those openings, you will find they exit on the outside of the frog. These are the nostrils.

Draw the frogs mouth. Label each of the structures underlined above.

Complete the chart below

Vomarine teeth
Eustachian tubes
Nictitating Membrane
Tympanic Membrane



Enter subhead content here

Enter content here

Enter supporting content here

metamorphic rocks click here

virtual fossil lab

click to see clam pictures